Today we pay about equally much for the disposal of Carbon in contemporary wastes as the cost of its fossil replenishment. In the same manner as „CO₂-neutrally“ combustion of energetically used biomass it applies: Each Tonne CO₂ emission is replenished by 2½ barrel crude oil, which Carbon Recycling could save! But very few people understand that CO₂ represents destroyed Carbon! And even less humans are aware of the role Carbon plays in Nature! This innocence some economic sectors ruthlessly use via subsidies, PPP models or certificate trade at the expense of general public to cash high profits. It so happens nowadays that we pay double for lacking Carbon Efficiency awareness in the belief of doing something good.
Nature always concerns just Carbon – Water and (chemical) – Energy!
1) Nature compounds under solar energy Carbon – Hydrogen & Oxygen (the latter two in atomic ratio of [H₂O] Water) into organic energy carriers (carbohydrates)
2) and Nature breaks its creations at the end of life-cycle down in gases from the same 3 atoms:
– Residual energy stored in matter goes to CH₄ [Methane] (as energy never can get lost),
– Carbon surplus oxidizes in CO₂ and
– the mass balance is H₂O [Water] (to keep the total of energy and mass constant)
That way Natural Gas became the energy rich decomposition gas of former fossil organic matter. Biogas is the equivalent from contemporary residues can be delivered for wet unstructured matter by fermentation and for solids by Pyrolysis under technical acceleration.
Pyrolysis delivers the energy however only ⅓ each as relatively clean gases, liquid hydrocarbons with high oxygen content as well as physical Carbon, carrying practically all potential pollutants (Sulfur, Chlorine, Nitrogen, etc.). For cleaning the latter two, Carbon under water steam generates Water-gas (Carbon monoxide plus Hydrogen). The Hydrogen can tie foregoing contaminations in (nonpoisonous) hydrides (e.g.: H₂S; HCl; NH₃; etc.). As such they can later be separated as condensates from the Product gas. This is also state of art in every oil refinery. Hence water steam gasified Pyrolysis delivers clean gases only. But Hydrogen and CO₂ from thermal processes undergo a 30% efficiency reducing equilibrium reaction into Methane and water.
25 years ago my former special materials enterprise developed physical Carbon Deposition as synthetic diamond from Acetylene [C₂H₂]. Here Hydrogen can be yielded without rebound reactions. We industrialized it into „CO₂-free Hydrogen-production from Methane with the by-product (nano)crystalline Carbon“. As such it is hardly combustible and predestinated for enlargement of electrode surfaces as well ideal for thermo- chemical processing in „Cold wall reactors“. The latter enable reaction conditions under alternating electric fields. One could apply CO₂-free electricity as reaction energy and can keep process temperatures under the threshold for unwanted consecutive reactions as for example the equilibrium- Methane formation.
The resulting efficiency increases facilitate the way towards competitive bio-refineries for Carbon Circular Economies! Strictly speaking our technical world can only afford to be „decarbonized“ through energy efficient multiple re-use of Carbon continuously turned over by Nature. Anything burnt destroys Carbon into CO₂! Hydrogen produced CO₂-free by Carbon deposition from Methane delivers the same electricity from a Fuel Cell than burning the Methane. A Chemical Synthesis from the retained Carbon with water for an additional use-cycle can substitute 0,7-1 Liter crude oil per m³ (Bio-)Methane. A transition from linear to Circular Carbon Economy could hence be financed from the neutralization of today’s existing double cost, explained above. At the same time Carbon Circular Economy could support 12/17 UN-SDGs!