About 40% of fossil primary energy goes into 66% of current power generation via the 3-step transformation of:
fuel -> calorific energy -> motion power -> mechanical electricity generation;
Today only 4% of Hydrogen stem from e.g. electrolysis or chemical industry by-production. 96% of World Hydrogen production stems from 1.23% fossil primary hydrocarbons according to:
In the case of Steam Methane Reforming [ #SMR ] Natural Gas to Hydrogen the same amount of Carbon gets disposed into atmosphere as if it was combusted. Grace to the contributions from water such Hydrogen output holds 94% of the Natural Gas feedstock energy. Using it in Hydrogen Fuel Cells’ [ #HFC ] single-step electrochemical Hydrogen transformation into power yields 1.6 times the Electricity of the current 3-step practice. Therefore Carbon Efficiency per electric energy generated improves and the yield surplus could substitute 40% of todays’ coal use for power generation. If the remaining coal power was produced via steam reforming into Hydrogen for utility scale fuel cell power the gain in Carbon Efficiency would be almost factor 2. So in total, State of Art Technology could double electricity’s Carbon Efficiency.
58% of crude oil today is refined into transportation fuels. HFC vehicles could travel equal mileage on Hydrogen refined from about half the crude oil fed into existing hydrocarbon fuel refining and could therefore also double Carbon Efficiency if Hydrogen-mobility was introduced.
However the biggest showstopper for Hydrogen is its awkwardness in storage and transportation. Therefore it would be best to produce it from a commonly accessible resource at points of its use. Ideally under no formation of CO2, local CO2 capture for liquefaction and use in the food & beverage or other industries, also a kind of Carbon Capture for Use but of quite short cycle time to atmospheric Carbon stock.
Wherever abundant Carbon-emission free electricity may be available, electrolysis deems most attractive. Maybe to heat a home – but a bit inefficient to fuel a HFC Electric Vehicle [ #HFCEV ] compared to pure battery [ #BEV ] charging. At some point current practices of socializing costs of inefficiency will get superseded by directly charging initiators in full.
Nowadays many people speak of Power-to-Gas and first demonstrations like the Thüga Project in Hessen (equipped with ITM Electrolyzes) were quite impressive. With inexpensive CO2 availability from e.g. a biogas plant a Substitute Natural Gas [ #SNG ] output energy efficiency of up to 50% of electric energy input may be achievable. And as long as the myth of Carbon Neutrality may continue to spook, such SNG may steam reformed into Hydrogen for an electric output of 30% of original abundant electricity stored.
In view of Carbon Efficiency though a solution keeping Carbon involved in recovery and release cycle of storing energy stored in matter to a possible maximum, we would like to draw your attention to Carbon – mankind’s most misjudged resource, proposing Physical Carbon Capture for Use from Methane in Carbon Recycling Power to Gas energy storage configurations.
#Power2Gas, #CarbonEfficiency, #CarbonRecycling